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Abril 17, 2006

Psicología cognitiva y errores médicos

Muy interesante este pequeño artículo en INSEAD (original en el British Medical Journal, abril 2005) sobre cómo las percepciones de los médicos pueden hacer que incurran en errores de diagnóstico.

Resumen:
The consequences of medical misdiagnoses are often catastrophic. Some psychologists hold that doctors are guided by heuristics-based cognitive processes that allow them to make constant on-the-spot decisions. Associate Professor of Marketing and Doctor of Social Psychology Jill Klein outlines five examples of the most common forms of cognitive biases that can, however unwittingly, thwart doctors' best-laid plans.

Aquí os dejo el link al artículo. Abajo transcribo los cinco ejemplos de biases cognitivos:

Five Pitfalls in Decisions about Diagnosis and Prescribing
Klein details five of the most common - and potentially serious - heuristic pitfalls befalling doctors:

1. The representative heuristic:
An assumption that something viewed as similar to other things in a certain category should be seen as belonging to that category.

2. The availability heuristic:
A cognitive overemphasis on things coming to mind easily, mostly due to their being easily remembered or recently encountered.

3. Overconfidence:
Most educated people are poor at assessing the gaps in their knowledge, tending to overestimate both how much, and how reliably they "know" a subject.

4. Confirmatory bias:
The tendency to seek out, notice and remember whatever information fits best with one's pre-established expectations.

5. Illusory correlation:
The inclination towards accepting events as causally related, when the actual connection between them is either coincidental, or non-existent.

Es interesante este campo de estudio, sobre cómo la mente puede afectar a las decisiones que se toman, de forma poco menos que racional...

Jorge Fernández | Comentarios (0) | Categoría: Cambiando las conversaciones
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